Course Summary

Time Of Flight Diffraction


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ToFD Principle

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ToFD Inspection Result


ToFD offers rapid weld inspection with excellent flaw detection and sizing capacities. The diffraction technique provides critical sizing capability with relative indifference to bevel angle or flaw orientation. ToFD can be utilized on its own or in conjunction with other NDT techniques.Although time-of-flight diffraction (ToFD) can be used for a variety of applications, its primary use is rapid weld testing of circumferential and axial weld seams, also known as perpendicular ToFD scanning. ToFD technique widely used in Petrochemical, oil refining and power generation industries, Offshore and marine industries, Nuclear industries, Manufacturing industries, Aerospace and defence sector also Inspection of bridges.


  • Course Content:
  • • ToFD theory and principles of diffraction, ToFD hardware (pulsers, receivers, motor control, encoders), ToFD data acquisition and interpretation, ToFD techniques, ToFD applications, equipment selection, calibration and optimisation, optimising PCS and angles, flaw location and sizing, limitations of detection and resolution, codes and standards, reporting.
  • • The course ends with the certification examination.
  • • Training in accordance with the requirements of ISO 9712.


  • Certification/Awarding Body:
  • • CSWIP

    • Course Objectives:
    • • To understand the theoretical background and limitations of ToFD applications
    • • To correctly select probe/wedge to examine welded butt joints
    • • To calibrate and set up the ToFD ultrasonic equipment
    • • To locate and evaluate flaws in the weld body and HAZ
    • • To differentiate defects from geometric features
    • • To analyse scan data for location and size of defects in typical welded butt joints